Thèse de doctorat en Littérature comparée - Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3
Le personnage homosexuel masculin dans le théâtre en France au cours du XXème siècle a singulièrement évolué. Nous analyserons d’une part, les typologies de ce personnage, à travers huit pièces : Le Monsieur aux Chrysanthèmes, Armory, Un Taciturne de Roger Martin du Gard er Adam de Marcel Achard., La Fleur des Pois d’Edouard Bourdet, Les Œufs de l’Autruche d’André Roussin et La Cage aux folles de Jean Poiret Angels in America de Tony Kushner et Le Pays Lointain de Jean-Luc Lagarce. D’autre part, pour chacune d’entre elles, nous verrons comment la presse et les publics ont interprété ces personnages. Nous verrons comment, au delà de la forme théâtrale, c’est tout un discours sur les homosexuels qui est donné à voir et qui vient par là interroger les rapports entre le théâtre et la société.
In the XXth century, in French theatre, the gay male character has remarkably changed. We will analyse on one hand the character typologies across eight plays. One the other hand, for each of the plays we will see how the public and the press interpreted these characters. We will see, above the theatrical form, how it finally is a speech on homosexual that is given and that comes and asks the links that are between theatre and society. In the first part of our study we introduced, the gay male character in three plays, with different styles but the three of them will give a solitary figure : Le Monsieur aux Chrysanthèmes of Armory, Un taciturne of Roger Martin and Adam of Marcel Achard. It is a solitary character because it is walled in a tradition that condemns it for its own desire where it is already unfulfilled. Homosexuality will then be seen as the mark of a weak spirit, that can not shut its inclinations and when it’s too obvious the character will commit suicide. The second part of our work underlines gay male character seen as a comic part. The point will show how the character generates laughter, and so, it does prove society condemnation. It is a minor mode indeed, apparently less violent, but it just shows how society sees homosexuals, in an other way . This part will be focused on 3 plays : La Fleur des Pois of Edouard Bourdet,, Les Oeufs de l’Autruche of André Roussi and La Cage aux folles of Jean Poiret. The homosexual character does make laugh because it is unable to conform to what society really expects from him. A man has to love a woman, be manly, masculine, he has to master his feelings and not cry. In our last part will appear for the first time, an acquisition of homosexual signs. Thanks to that other artists will not talk instead of homosexuals. On the contrary, some forms will be born and they will be claimed as written by homosexuals. It is the case in the last two plays we gathered in our corpus: Angels in America of Tony Kushner and Le Pays Lointain of Jean-Luc Lagarce. They both talk, in a more direct way, of the AIDS epidemic in the 80’s and 90’s among the homosexual community.