Genre et scolarisation des filles au Niger

Thèse de doctorat en Sociologie - Université Paris Descartes
Par Aissata ASSANE IGODOE
Page personnelle
Sous la direction de Marie-France Lange
et la co-direction de Mahaman Tidjani Alou
Année de soutenance 2018

Résumé

Français Anglais
Notre recherche analyse l’influence des rapports sociaux de sexe sur la scolarisation primaire des filles au Niger, à partir d’une enquête qualitative menée dans une région rurale et dans une région urbaine du Niger auprès des acteurs étatiques des politiques publiques, d’enseignant-e-s et de parents. En 2015-2016, le taux brut de scolarisation primaire s’établissait à 82,1 % pour les garçons contre 70,2 % pour les filles. Cet écart de scolarisation entre les filles et les garçons est plus ou moins important selon les régions et entre les milieux urbain et rural. Dans ce contexte, l’État nigérien tente de promouvoir la scolarisation des filles en favorisant l’implication des femmes dans les actions publiques notamment à travers la mise en place des points focaux SCOFI, la création des Associations des mères éducatrices dans les écoles ou encore en voulant affecter davantage d’enseignantes dans les zones rurales où la scolarisation des filles est la plus faible. Par ailleurs, nos enquêtes révèlent que l’adhésion des parents à la scolarisation des filles repose en partie sur leurs représentations de l’influence de l’instruction sur les rôles sociaux de mère et d’épouse qu’ils souhaitent que leurs filles investissent de façon prioritaire. En ville, les parents sont favorables à la scolarisation des filles parce qu’elle permettra l’insertion économique de ces dernières et favorisera, entre autres, la participation financière des filles à leur futur foyer. Par contre, dans les villages, certains des parents enquêtés rejettent la scolarisation des filles, parce qu’ils craignent les effets subversifs de l’école sur les valeurs qu’ils souhaitent que leurs filles acquièrent et sur les comportements futurs de ces dernières. À l’école également, les représentations des enseignant-e-s sur l’importance de l’instruction féminine ou encore les tâches qu’ils confient à leurs élèves se différencient selon le sexe de ces derniers. Ainsi, les attitudes des enseignants et des enseignantes, tout en étant favorables à la scolarisation des filles, s’inscrivent aussi dans une perspective de genre.
Our study analyzes the influence of gender relations on the primary schooling of girls in Niger, based on a qualitative survey conducted in a rural region and an urban region of Niger among public policy actors, teachers and parents. In 2015-2016, the gross primary enrollment rate was 82.1% for boys and 70.2% for girls. This gap in schooling between girls and boys varies depending on the region and between urban and rural environments. In this context, public policy actors try to promote girls' schooling through two main institutional measures: the implementation of focal points SCOFI (Girls¿ Schooling) in primary school inspectorates and the creation of the Mother Educators Associations (AME). Actions to support school demand (scholarships, awareness raising, literacy, tutoring classes, etc.) are also carried out, mainly by development partners. Our surveys reveal that parents' adherence to girls' schooling is partly based on their representations of the influence of education on the social roles of mothers and wives that they want their daughters to assume in priority. In the city, parents approve of girls' schooling because it allows their economic insertion and will, among other things, promote the financial participation of girls in their future home. Girls' instruction is thus perceived, especially by men, as an advantage to the role of mother and wife. On the other hand, in the villages, some of the parents interviewed rejected girls' schooling because they feared the subversive effects of school on the values they want their daughters to acquire. In school as well, girls' education is regarded from a gender's perspective since the representations of the social relationships of sex and the attitudes of both male and female teachers, while favorable to the schooling of girls, are close to those of the parents. This research also highlights the role of women in girls' schooling, especially mothers and female teachers. Mothers, the main actors in the education of girls, play a leading role in their schooling (influence in the decision-making to send a girl to school, unequal distribution of family activities). Women teachers, as for them, are requested by the public policies to be a representation of girl¿s schooling in rural areas where the populations are reluctant to the schooling of girls. However, young, often single, rural female teachers are subject to contradictory injunctions from the administration which asks them to promote their profession as educated women, while also asking them to adopt an attitude in line with that of the women of the environment where they are sent, by showing restrain and discretion. In addition, female teachers are sometimes rejected by the population¿s for whom they embody the educated woman, and consequently a model of femininity different than the one that some parents want for their daughters. Girls' schooling is not only part of a relationship between women, but also part of social and power relations between men and women. We note then that the role of women in girls' education and in the reproduction of social gender roles is socially and sexually constructed, since it is an expectation shared by men.